Mortgages Analyzed
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Combined Loan To Value

What is Combined Loan To Value?

Combined Loan To Value

Combined Loan to Value (CLTV) is the total of all mortgage loans on a property expressed as a percentage of the property value. CLTV reflects the proportion of property that is financed by debt.

The purpose of CLTV is to assess the availability of collateral (real estate) to meet loan repayment. The primary source of repayment is the borrower’s income from which the borrower makes monthly payment. In the event the borrower losses the income, the lender falls back on the secondary source of repayment which is the liquidation of the real estate (foreclosure process).

CLTV is calculated by dividing the outstanding balance for all the loans against the property by the property value. At the time of purchase, property value is the lower of appraised value and the purchase price. At any other time property value is the fair market value such as the appraised value. Appraised value is the valuation of the property provided by a licensed appraiser. Purchase price is the amount that the buyer is paying to the seller at an arms-length transaction.

Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Combined Loan to Value is a Measure of Risk

Lenders use CLTV ratio as a measure of risk. It measures the amount of collateral that is available to cover the outstanding debt. CLTV is of great importance to lenders that provide loan with a secondary lien position. The higher the CLTV, the higher is the risk the borrower may default on the loan. A 100% CLTV loan means that the borrower is using 100% financing for the property purchase. If the market goes down, the borrower may simply walk away from the loan without losing much, other than credit history. For this reason, lenders usually cap the maximum CLTV that they are willing to lend up to. Also, as the CLTV increases, the criteria for obtaining the loan increase. For example, loans with CLTV up to 80% may be given to borrowers having a credit score of 650 or more. However, loans CLTV greater than 80% would be restricted to borrowers having credit score above 720.

CLTV is not used in isolation. Lenders use various risk indicators such as LTV , credit score, housing ratio and DTI , to assess the overall level of risk.

Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Formula for Combined Loan To Value

Method 1: Loan Amount Method

CLTV is calculated by dividing the outstanding balance for all the loans against the property by the property value. It can be expressed using the formula below.

Combined Loan To Value =  
Sum of all Loans Property Value

Or,

CLTV =  
P1+ P2+ P3+ ...+ Pk PV
Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Rewritten as

CLTV =  
Σ Pk
PV
 

Where,

CLTV  =  Combined Loan To Value
Pk  =  Principal amount for loan k
PV  =  Property value (Lower of purchase price and appraised value)
n  =  Number of loans
Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Method 2: LTV Method

CLTV is equal to sum of all LTVs. It can be expressed using the formula below.

CLTV =   LTV1+ LTV2+ LTV3+ ...+ LTVk

Rewritten as

CLTV =   Σ LTVk

Where,

CLTV  =  Combined Loan To Value
LTVk  =  LTV for loan k
n  =  Number of loans
Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Examples for Combined Loan To Value Calculations

Example 1: Purchase Transaction

Roland obtains a first lien loan for $75,000 and a second lien loan for $5,000. The appraised value is $100,000 and the purchase price is $101,000.

Where,

Principal (P1)  =  $75,000
Principal (P2)  =  $5,000
Property Value (PV)  =  $100,000. Lower of appraised value($100,000) and the purchase price($101,000)
LTV1 =  
P1 PV
=  
75,000 100,000
=  75%
LTV2 =  
P2 PV
=  
5,000 100,000
=  5%
CLTV =  
(P1 + P2) PV
=  
(75,000 + 5,000) 1,00,000
=  80%

Also,

CLTV =   LTV1 + LTV2 =   75% + 5% =  80%
Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Example 2: Purchase Transaction with Single Loan

Roland obtains a loan for $75,000. The appraised value is $100,000 and the purchase price is $101,000.

Where,

Principal (P1)  =  $75,000
Property Value (PV)  =  $100,000. Lower of appraised value($100,000) and the purchase price($101,000)
LTV1 =  
P1 PV
=  
75,000 100,000
=  75%
CLTV =  
P1 PV
=  
75,000 100,000
=  75%

If there is only one loan on the property then LTV equals CLTV.

Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Example 3: Taking Additional Loan

Roland refinances his loan with an outstanding balance of $75,000. He now takes another loan for $15,000. The appraised value is $125,000.

Where,

Principal (P1)  =  $75,000
Principal (P2)  =  $15,000
Property Value (PV)  =  $90,000.
LTV1 =  
P1 PV
=  
75,000 125,000
=  60%
LTV2 =  
P2 PV
=  
15,000 125,000
=  12%
CLTV =  
(P1 + P2) PV
=  
(75,000 + 15,000) 125,000
=  72%

Also,

CLTV =   LTV1 + LTV2 =   60% + 12% =  72%
Source :www.MortgagesAnalyzed.com

Calculators for Combined Loan To Value

  1. LTV and CLTV Calculator
  2. LTV and CLTV Calculator on a Spreadsheet

Updated: Nov 24, 2013

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CLTV is calculated by dividing the outstanding balance for all the loans against the property by the property value
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